Wednesday, 26 January 2022

Introduction | Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years | (हज़ार वर्षों के दौरान ट्रेसिंग परिवर्तन) Class 7 History , Class 7 NCERT - OUR PAST , CHAPTER -1 ,



Tracing changes through  thousand years

हज़ार वर्षों के दौरान ट्रेसिंग परिवर्तन

1.Main points to study:

अध्ययन करने के लिए मुख्य बिंदु:

  • How maps are designed

  • मानचित्र कैसे डिज़ाइन किए जाते हैं 

  • How terminology changes with times

  • समय के साथ शब्दावली कैसे बदलती है

  • Sourcing of historical data.

  • ऐतिहासिक डेटा की सोर्सिंग।

  • Emergences of new groups and dynasties.

  • नए समूहों और राजवंशों का उदय।

  • Formulations of new religions 

  • नए धर्मों का निर्माण 

  • Division of time period.

  • समय अवधि का विभाजन।

2. There are two maps given in book (NCERT Class 7th) of India:

2. भारत के पुस्तक (एनसीईआरटी कक्षा 7वीं) में दो मानचित्र दिए गए हैं:

3.First Map was made in 1154 CE by the Arab geographer Al-Idrisi.

3.सबसे पहले 1154 सीई में अरब भूगोलवेत्ता अल-इदरीसी द्वारा बनाया गया था।

 4…..    2 was made in the 1720s by a French cartographer( cartographer is a person who draws a map.

4… दूसरा 1720 के दशक में एक फ्रांसीसी मानचित्रकार द्वारा बनाया गया था (कार्टोग्राफर वह व्यक्ति है जो एक नक्शा खींचता है)।

5. There was a 600 years gap between both maps .

In map1 south India is considered as north India and Sri Lanka is the island at the top. While Map2 looks somewhere similar to today’s map of India shown as the subcontinent, it was made by european sailors and merchants on the voyages.


6.Due to huge differences in timeline when Maps were made historians have to keep base or background  i.e context in the mind to read all these to understand or to interpret it in the right way. 

6.समयरेखा में भारी अंतर के कारण जब मानचित्र बनाए गए थे तो इतिहासकारों को इन सभी को समझने या सही तरीके से व्याख्या करने के लिए आधार या पृष्ठभूमि यानी संदर्भ को दिमाग में रखना पड़ता है।

8. Due to changes in times from old to new- it includes change in language,area, social  and political scenario , the context of historical data has also changed. Examples:

9. Today Hindustan is considered as whole new modern India, while in 13th century Minhaj-i-Siraj, a chronicler who was the principal historian of Delhi sultanate, wrote in Persian, 

 He meant Hindustan  the areas of Punjab, Haryana and the lands between the Ganga and Yamuna.His context was based on political sense for lands that were under the Delhi Sultanate  .

10.  Another example  Babur and Amir khusro considered Hindustan as the idea of a geographical and cultural entity, unlike the meaning it carries in today’s context i.e the political and national meanings.

11. Last example: the term foreigner in today's context means who is not an Indian, while earlier it was for a person who was not from a village and not part of the same culture, maybe that was from the same country.  Mainly to city dwellers in Hindi called pardesi or in persian language ajnabi. 

12.Historians and their Sources

12.इतिहासकार और उनके स्रोत

Historian is a person who is an expert in the study of history. To study history of a particular era , historians depend on various resources available at that Era like on coins, inscriptions, architecture and textual records for information.


13. As times passed historians more depend on textual records than available resources of information due to discontinuity of information in other resources ,

14. They displaced  other types of information due to difficulty in handling them. While they started reading and writing the records on papers due to its easy and cheap availability. 

People used it to write holy texts, chronicles of rulers, letters and teachings of saints, petitions and judicial records, and for registers of accounts and taxes.

15. Earlier records were documented as a manuscript, which were hard to handle, made and read. Now paper is becoming popular and cheap, manuscripts were getting copied on papers by hand due to non availability of press .

15. पहले अभिलेखों को पांडुलिपि के रूप में प्रलेखित किया जाता था, जिन्हें संभालना, बनाना और पढ़ना मुश्किल था, क्योंकि कागज लोकप्रिय और सस्ता होता जा रहा है, पांडुलिपि को कागजों पर हाथ से कॉपी नहीं मिल रहा था क्योंकि प्रेस की अनुपलब्धता के कारण इस लेखन के कारण कई जानकारी बदल जाती है। 

16. Authors of various chronicles also revise their earlier written chronicles to make corrections and additions

Like The fourteenth-century chronicler Ziyauddin Barani wrote his chronicle first in 1356 and another version two years later. Historians came to know, both were very different from each other till they found the next one after years in a library. 

17 New Social and Political Groups 

17. नए सामाजिक और राजनीतिक समूह

18. Now the challenge for historians has increased due to vast development in every area of people's lives. New technologies made their appearance – like the Persian new technologies - wheel in irrigation, the spinning wheel in weaving, and firearms in combat.

 New foods and beverages arrived in the subcontinent – potatoes, corn, chillies, tea and coffee.Those people who are attracted towards wealth and new opportunities attracted to the subcontinent .

19. In the eighth and fourteenth centuries groups like Marathas, Sikhs, Jats, Ahoms and Kayasthas were becoming politically important.

 A Kshatriya caste naming Rajputs were emerging as strong personalities in different monarchs all over the subcontinent. They are not only rulers or chiefs but very brave and loyal soldiers as described by their  poets. 

The legendary Rajput Prince: Maharan Pratap Singh

महान राजपूत राजकुमार: महारान प्रताप सिंह  

20. As people are developing , forests are getting clean. More and more agricultural land was coming up. 

Forest dwellers are forced to move, new people are coming and tilling the lands and becoming peasants.

 These new peasant groups gradually began to be influenced by regional markets, chieftains, priests, monasteries and temples; they had to give taxes.

21. Due to different economic activities, there were significant socio-economic differences emerged which led to formation of JATIS or sub-castes and ranked on the basis of their backgrounds and their occupations.

Ranks were not fixed permanently, and varied according to the power, influence and resources controlled by members of the jati.

22. These jaits have made their own rules, code of conducts and were governed by their Jatis panchayat but they also need to follow the rules of the village in which they were residing.

23. Region and Empire

23. क्षेत्र और साम्राज्य

24.Indian subcontinent were ruled by many different dynasties and left their marks on social, cultural, economic systems in different regions of the subcontinent  after their fall. During their rule these dynasties also had clashes for land and rules, so the area of different states grew and reduced after battles. this also led to emergence of many distinct

and shared traditions: in the realms of governance, the management of the economy, elite   cultures, and languages.

25.  Dynasties like the Cholas, Khaljis, Tughluqs and Mughals were able to build an empire that was pan-regional – spanning diverse regions.while the Delhi Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban  (1266-1287) explained that he was the ruler of a vast empire that stretched from Bengal (Gauda) in the east to Ghazni (Gajjana) in Afghanistan in the west and included all of south India (Dravida).

Old and New Religions

26. The Indian subcontinent has seen the emergence of new beliefs systems and religions due to various invasions and dynasties. Bramamans were at top positions in kingdoms. Patrons, rulers follow them strictly.

26.  भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप ने विभिन्न आक्रमणों और राजवंशों के कारण नई विश्वास प्रणालियों और धर्मों का उदय देखा है। ब्राह्मण राज्यों में शीर्ष पदों पर थे। संरक्षक, शासक उनका कड़ाई से पालन करते हैं।

27.New religion like Islam brought by invadors and merchants, teaching of Holy Qur'an brought here which belive in one God aspect of whole universe. Like Hinduism, Islam were also spreading like fire and lots of people started following it. While there are many communities under Islam but main are two :

1 Shia 

2 Sunni

Both believe systems are slightly different from each other…

(To know in depth you can read our blog and watch video for more clarity)

(गहराई से जानने के लिए आप हमारे ब्लॉग को पढ़ सकते हैं और अधिक स्पष्टता के लिए वीडियो देख सकते हैं)

28 Thinking about Time and Historical Periods

समय और ऐतिहासिक काल के बारे में सोच

Historians don't see time as days, months and years. They consider them as social and economic developments in time.

In british era, Britishers divided history in three parts :




As per the ruler ruled in India but this division ignored the rich diversity of the subcontinent, plus showed the divide and rule policy of Britishers which did more harm than benefits to our country which we are still facing. Many historians still follow this periodisation pattern in history.

29. The Medieval History of India  from the 7th century to 17th century has seen major changes in social, political and economic aspects of this subcontinent. It includes a wide range of early societies – hunter-gatherers, early farmers, people living in towns and villages, and early empires and kingdoms. It also more about the spread of peasant societies, the rise of regional and imperial state formations – sometimes at the cost of pastoral and forest people – the development of Hinduism and Islam as major religions and the arrival of European trading.

30. This ``medieval” period is often contrasted with the “modern” period. “Modernity” carries with it a sense of material progress and intellectual advancement.

Summary ended.

सारांश समाप्त।


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