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Friday, 11 January 2019

Verb : fully explained , finite verb vs non finite verb , trnsitive vs Intransitive , auxillary vs main

Verb

Definition :  The verb is a word which is used to express some action , existence on feeling .

Ex.1     I read my book .

    2    They play hockey .

Verb को मुख्यतः दो भागों में बांटा गया है  -

1- Main verb / full verb / Ordinary Verb /   Lexical Verb .

2- Auxiliary Verb / Helping Verb .

                             Verb

        ______________|________

        |                                    |

     Main Verb              Auxiliary Verb

         _|_______              ____|___

       |               |               |              |

  Finite  Non F       Primary    Auxillary            
   _|_______                   |______________

  |                     |             |                  |

Tran..   Intrans...        Infi.          Geru..

  
Main verb  :  वह Verb जो Sentence में main work को प्रदर्शित करती है|

Auxiliary verb  :  वह Verb जो Sentence में main verb को Help करता है|

Ex.1      He  is     reading a novel.

                  A.v      M.v

Reason
इसमें reading,  main verb है , और is  auxillary verb है

    2.     I   play    cricket.
                 M.v

Reason
इसमें play main verb है ,  auxillary verb   नहीं है इसमें

   3.  I am a teacher .
           M.v

Note -  यदि is / am / are / was / were / ….etc , sentence में अकेले आये तो ये Main verb होते है|

            A.v       M.v
Ex.1 I  have  completed my assignment.

    इसमें have , auxillary verb है
    तथा इसमें  completed , main verb है

 2.  I have a car .
          M.v

  इसमें have अकेले हैं इसलिए यह main verb  है

   3.  I do not help him.
          A.v        M.v

    .  I do my homework
          M.v

Finite verb  :  वे Verb जो अपने Subject के Number person एवं tense के अनुसार प्रयुक्त होते हैं|

Non-finite verbs :  वे Verb जो अपने Subject के Number person एवं tense के अनुसार प्रयुक्त न होकर प्रत्येक subject के साथ एक ही रूप में प्रयुक्त होते हैं|

Ex.1   He wants to go there.
इसमें wants  : finite verb है
इसमें to go  : non finite verb है

    2.  They wants  to go  there.
                     F.v     n.f.v

    3.  He dislikes gambling.
                  F.v          n.f.v

   4.  Mohan  likes smoking.
                      F.v     n.f.v

   5. He lost his driving license
             F.v          n.f.v

   6. He enjoys watching the cricket
               F.v        n.f.v

Transitive Verbs (सकर्मक क्रिया)  : वे क्रियाएँ जिनके क्रिया का प्रभाव सिर्फ Subject पर ही न पड़कर किसी Object पर भी पड़े Transitive verbs कहलाती हैं|

In-transitive verbs  : वे क्रियाएँ जिनके क्रिया का प्रभाव सिर्फ Subject पर ही पड़कर समाप्त हो जाता है, और किसी object पर नहीं पड़ता In-transitive verbs कहलाती हैं|

                               T.v
Ex.1     The driver stop the car .

इसमें stop action ड्राइवर ने,  car पर किया है इसलिए यह transitive verb  है

    2.     The car stopped
                             I.t.v

   इसमें stopped एक्शन किसी अन्य के द्वारा नहीं हुआ है इसलिए यह intransitive वर्ब है

Note :  कुछ Verbs का प्रयोग Transitively तथा In-transitively दोनों तरह से किया जाता है|

Ex.1  Boys fly kites (T.V)

    2. Birds fly high in the sky (I.T.V)

    3. The peon rings the bell . (T.V)

    4.  The bell rings at 4 p.m ( I.T.V)

  5. The soldiers fought the enemy (T.V)

  6. The soldiers fought bravely  ( I.T.V)

Auxiliary verbs :  इनकी कुल संख्या 24 है, और इन्हें दो भागों में बाँटा गया है-

1.  Primary Auxiliary :  (11 words) - is , am , are , was , were , has , have , had , do , does , did.

इन्हें पुनः तीन भागों में बाँटा गया है-

verb 'to be’ - is , am , are , was , were.
verb 'to do’ - do , does , did .
verb 'to have’ - has , have , had.

Note
Primary Auxiliary का use M.V तथा A.V दोनों की तरह होता है, जबकि Model Auxiliary का प्रयोग सिर्फ A.V की तरह होता है|

Examples asked in exams ( previous paper )

Ex.1 They have ……. the hands .

.a) raise b) rising c) risen d) ✓ raised

                        e) rose.

 2. The ship ………. near the coast.

.a) sink  b) ✓ sank c) drowned d) sunk

 3. The boy ……… in the deep River.

Correct sent - The boy drowned in the                            deep River.

Note
Lay - laid - lain (अंडे देना / रखना / बैठना )
Lie - lied - lied (झूठ बोलना )
Lie - lay - lain (लेटना या / विश्राम करना)

Question.1 - The criminal was …… to death.

.a) Hung    b) Hang          c) ✓ Hanged

 d) No imp.

Note
Hung और hanged दोनों ही past है hang  के
Hanged (फांसी देना)
Hung (लटकाना , टांगना , ठहरना )

Hanged का use किसी चीज को गर्दन से लड़का के मार देने तक के लिए किया जाता है

जबकि hung का use किसी चीज को लटकाने के लिए किया जाता है उदाहरण के लिए

● I hung a picture of Mahatma Gandhi
 on the wall.

● After school, she hung out in the library.

Ex.1 They were playing , running , and make merry at the spot.

Correct sent - They  were playing , running , and making merry at the spot.

Reason

यह sentence , past continous में है इसलिए  

 सभी इसमें  past continous में आएंगे

2. They have cooked the food and send   

    into the orthange.

Correct sent - They have cooked the food and sent into the orthange.

Reason

sent , past tense है

जबकि   send present tense है

और यहां cooked past tense मे है

इसलिए यहां sent  आएगा |


3. We do not knew what to do  with our

    idea.

Correct sent - We do not know what to

 do  with our idea.

Reason

  इसमें know   , present tense को दर्शाता है

  जबकि knew , past tense   को दर्शाता है

  यानी अगर आपके पास present में कोई       

  knowledge हो तो आप know का use करेंगे |

  अगर past की बात कर रहे हो तो आप knew का    

  use करेंगे |



   Some Important Rule

Rule.1 -  Do / Did / Does के साथ हमेशा Have का use होता है , Has या Had  का कभी नहीं होता है|

Note

DO has four forms.

Present Tense: Do / Does
Past Tense: Did
Past Participle: Done

Do     --  singular

Does  -- plural



Ex.1  Do you had any further argument?

Correct sent-: Do you have any further argument .

Reason

इसमें do के साथ हमेशा have का use होता है

2. They do not had any more chance to win the game now?

Correct sent - They do not have any more chance to win the game now .

Reason

इसमें do के साथ हमेशा have का use होता है


Rule.2 - कुछ Sentences में has had , have had , had had का use होता है , इनमें पहला word  , auxiliary तथा  second , main verb का कार्य करता है|

Ex.     We ………. a good chance?

.a) Had have b) ✓ Have had c) have has

    d) No important.

Rule.3 -   Structure

    (1).  S + ‘ to have ’ + no + noun .

    (2).  S + ‘ to have ’ + not any + noun .

Note

‘ to have ’    → has , have , had

  

Ex.1  They have ……. chance now.

.(a) no any  (b) not (c) ✓ no (d) not same .

   2. There was not information to give  

            him?

Correct sent  -  There was no information

          to give him .



  3.  They have no any man to perform

       the duty Well ?

Correct sent - They have not any man to perform the duty Well .

Reason :

यहां no  के बाद Noun नहीं है इसलिए  not any का यूज किया गया है

2. Modal Auxiliaries -  ( 13 words ) :  Will , shall , can , could , may , might , would , should , must , used to , ought to , need , dare.


Note

    

   Present / Future                  Past

            Will                            would

            Shall                 Should

            Can                 Could

            Many                 Might




Rule.1-   Modal Auxiliaries के तुरंत बाद आने वाला Verb First Form (V1) होता है, और इसके पहले to नहीं लगाया जाता है|

Ex.1   I will go and stayed there for a few hours?

Correct sent - I will go and stay there for a few hours .

Reason

यहां verb →    go , auxilary verb will   के  

  बाद आई है जो कि v1 फॉर्म है, जो सही है

  लेकिन will go ,  future को दर्शाता है और

  stayed ,   past को दर्शाता है इसलिए stay   

  आएगा


1. They  will went and stay there

Correct sent : They  will go and stay there

Reason

यहां   will  , auxillary verb है ,  और जैसे कि rule  में बताया गया है कि auxillary verb के तुरंत बाद आने वाली verb ,  first form में होगी

इसलिए यहां went  की जगह go आएगा

2.    If I had worked hard , I will have got

         a government job ?

Correct sent -  If I had work hard , I would have got a  government job .

Reason

यहां   had  , auxillary verb है ,  और जैसे कि rule  में बताया गया है कि auxillary verb के तुरंत बाद आने वाली verb ,  first form में होगी

इसलिए यहां work  की जगह worked आएगा


3.   If he tries , he …... do it ?

.(a) would (b) could  (c) ✓ can (d) might

 इसमें tries एक present condition  है , जबकि   

 would और could भूतकाल की  condition पर  

 लगाया जाता है

    May  , permission को दर्शाता है (express

                      permission )

                 या कम possibility होने को दर्शाता है

   ( may का past tense है  → might)

   

   ex : She might have left a message

             on a voice mail.

    Can  , ability को दर्शाता है  ( express

                       ability )

       इसलिए यहां ability यानी can आएगा



4.   He worked hard so that he …... pass ?

.(a)will   (b) can (c) ✓ might (d) may

इसमें worked , past tense  में है

और possibility के लिए may / might का यूज किया जाता है

जैसे कि may , का past  might  है

इसलिए यहां  might  आएगा


5.   He works hard so that he …... pass ?

Correct sent-: He works hard so that he may pass .

Reason

Works hard , past tense मैं नहीं है ,  इसलिए may आएगा

6.  They ……  that they would win the Inter national Trophy ?

.(a) expects (b) will expect (c) ✓expected

             (d) feard

Reason

यहां would win , past tense को दर्शाता है

इसलिए    expected यहां आएगा



7.     She ……. that she might fail ?

.(a) Hoped (b) wished (c) expected

                       (d) ✓ feard

Reason

     Fear              :  डर

     Hoped          : आशा रखना

     Wished         :  कामना

     Expected      : अपेक्षित होना

 इसमें फेल होने का डर दर्शाता है  : इसलिए fear  

  आएगा




Rule.2 -   Modal Auxiliaries के साथ हमेशा Have का use होता है, Has या Had का कभी नहीं|


Ex.1  If you litter , you …... to pay for it ?

.(a)✓ will have (b) would have

 (c) will has     (d) No improvement


Reason

litter  : कूड़े /  कूड़ा करना

you  को plural ,   consider किया जाता है  

और if you litter  condition ,  future की है

इसलिए you के साथ   will have आएगा

और Modal Auxiliaries ,   will  के साथ have

  का use  होगा




2. They ………..…... their teachers ?.

Should had respected.


✓ Should have respected.


Should has respected.


No improvement.

Reason

Modal Auxiliaries ,   verb  (should )के साथ have का use  होता है


Note -

verb ‘ to be ’ - is / am / are / was / were के बाद [ to + V1 ] का use होने से Present या past की planning की योजना

का बोध होता है|

तथा to have के बाद

[ to + V1 ]आने से Compulsion / Obligation (मजबूरी / बाध्यता) का बोध होता है|

Ex.1 I am to help the poor. (मुझे ग़रीबों की मदद करनी है|)

   2.   I have to help the poor.( मुझे गरीबों की मदद करना ही करना है )










Rule.3(a) - यदि Sentence मैं दो Auxiliaries का use एक साथ हो तो इनके बाद आने वाला main verb दोनों Auxiliaries के अनुसार प्रयुक्त होना चाहिए|



Rule.3(b) -  यदि एक ही Main verb दोनों Auxiliaries के लिए उपयुक्त हो तो इसका प्रयोग एक बार (अंतिम Auxiliaries) के बाद किया जाता है

और उपयुक्त ना हो तो एक से अधिक Main verb का प्रयोग किया जाता है|


Ex.1 I have helped and will help him .

    2. I have not and will never do any

        good to him ?

      

Correct sent -  I have not done and will never do any good to him .


    3.  They neither have nor will assist

         me .

Correct sent- They neither have assisted nor will assist me .


    4. He has and it still living is this

        apartment.

Correct sent- He has lived and it still living is this apartment .

    5. I have and will read the book once

         again.

Correct sent - I have read and will read the book once again .

    6. She can do and will do whatever I

         want.

Correct sent- She can and will do

     whatever I want .



    7. They have not and can not be in good books of the coach because they lack discipline .

have not and can never been.


have not and can never be.


no improvement.


✓ have not been and can never be.


    

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